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            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Although modernization in wealthy Nordic countries has completely transformed ideals of residential comfort, thousands of vernacular log houses still remain in residential use throughout Fennoscandia, the Baltic states, and Western Russia.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Wars, flood, and fire threaten today’s most vulnerable collections, while better resourced institutions develop ever more pristine and hermetically sealed spaces. Modern art preservation is modeled on the idea that one can—and should—keep the world out.
            Spatial Computing
            Tega Brain and Sam Lavigne
            The goal is fungibility—to assert equivalence between activities by people or environments so that emissions created over here can be traded and (theoretically) compensated for by actions removing or reducing carbon over there. The means is, of course, commodification. Offsets privatize planetary metabolism.
            Spatial Computing
            But no matter how we choose to do it, internet measurement—like all data-centric disciplines—inevitably bumps into questions: what are we trying to measure? What does it mean for the internet to be working the way we want it to? And who is we?
            Spatial Computing
            Dare Brawley
            The recognition that investment firms—not “irresponsible” individual home buyers—increased the severity of the crash marks a significant departure from prevailing public narratives about this period. Yet the policy response in the United States since the crisis has largely been to double down on promoting profit-driven investment in housing.
            Spatial Computing
            I learned about the mass grave in 2018. It is located about five minutes by car from the Texas house I grew up in. I had driven past it every morning on my way to school, in the last dark hour before the sun took to stage.
            Spatial Computing
            Since the 1970s, punitive blocklisting technology has amalgamated various data sets, including eviction records, criminal records, credit rating data, and more, which can then be packaged and sold as recommendations to landlords on whether someone will be a “good” or “bad tenant.”
            Spatial Computing
            Lucia Rebolino
            So much depends on our ability to forecast the weather—and, when catastrophe strikes, on our ability to respond quickly. An architecture of forecasting is crucial for providing accurate and timely weather information and collecting essential weather and climate data.
            Spatial Computing
            Laura Kurgan, Adam Vosburgh, and e-flux Architecture
            Spatial Computing is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the M.S. in Computational Design Practices Program (MSCDP) at the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation (GSAPP) at Columbia University, featuring contributions by Dare Brawley, Catherine Griffiths, Laura Kurgan, Sam Lavigne and Tega Brain, Erin McElroy, Lai Yi Ohlsen, Mimi Ọnụọha, and Lucia Rebolino.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Kate Wagner
            The twentieth century electric revolution came and went, the choice was made to trade in one form of burning for another, and, at some point, the coal-burning stove was exchanged for the gas-powered radiators we have today.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Marianna Janowicz
            “The purpose of the home is to keep inside inside and the outside outside,” writes Jonathan Hill, implying a deep, psychological layering of what …
            Appropriations
            The frenzy to amass these precious resources unleashed a regime of forced labor, violence, and unchecked atrocities for Congolese people. These same two and a half decades of contact with the Congo Free State remade Belgium—what was then a new, small, and neutral country, squeezed and exposed on the map of Europe—into a global powerhouse, vitalized by an economic boom, architectural burst, and imperial surge.
            Framing Renovation
            The renovation of rural, abandoned villages does not need to entail a radical, metamorphic transformation of their functions and physical configuration. Rather, it can take place through a slow, continuous practice of inhabitation.
            Framing Renovation
            Katrina Wiberg
            The speed and magnitude of rising sea levels are the cause of considerable levels of uncertainty and flood risk in coastal communities. Approximately 10% of Earth’s population live in coastal areas less than ten meters above relative sea level, and 40% live within 100 kilometers of the coast. Denmark has followed global trends in concentrating new urban development in low-lying former wetlands and land that has been reclaimed from the sea, both of which are flood risk zones.
            Framing Renovation
            The former British Post Office building in Istanbul came into our lives during the Covid pandemic. Or, perhaps more accurately, that is when we walked into its life. It was the first post office that the British built beyond the borders of their empire.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Silvia Benedito
            When does the scope of architecture stop and landscape architecture start (and vice-versa) relative to thermally safe public environments? Disciplinar…
            Framing Renovation
            Alessandro Petti and Sandi Hilal
            Nick Axel: Your recent work in Italy looks at renovation beyond the material condition, towards a more historical, political, and almost metaphysical …
            Framing Renovation
            Nicole Kalms
            For many practitioners, “inclusive” and “gender neutral” design is viewed as the “gold standard” for public placemaking. However, these approaches can paradoxically negatively impact many people, and can have particular concerning consequences for women and girls in cities.
            Framing Renovation
            The environmental crisis adds a layer of complexity to the development and management of public housing in the city. To address this complexity, it is crucial to explore new ways of transforming existing housing stock and reducing demolition waste.
            Framing Renovation
            Future Foodscapes Research Unit
            Think about your last meal. Visualize its ingredients, colors, and flavors. Now, try to think about how it ended up on your plate; what sort of spaces it passed through, what kinds of architecture and infrastructure were involved in such a journey. Let’s begin at the everyday laboratory that is your kitchen, where your meal has likely been assembled from tiny cans, containers, and packages.
            Framing Renovation
            Mo Michelsen Stochholm Krag
            There is a strong, albeit latent, relationship between the local identities of village communities, collective memories of place, and abandoned buildings. The potential for renovation in these rural villages is not so much about restoring derelict buildings to their original state, but rather rebuilding community cohesion through their transformation.
            Framing Renovation
            Arno Brandlhuber, Ludwig Engel, Olaf Grawert, and Alina Kolar
            Do you rent an apartment or own a building? Are you involved in the building sector? Are you concerned about the environment? Well, you should be.
            Framing Renovation
            Ana Dana Beroš and Mika Savela
            Not all old factories can become cultural foundations; not all white sanatoriums in pine forests have the spotlight of contemporary design shining over them. Most of the built environment, even some the sleekest of modernist monuments, must seek other ways to survive.
            Framing Renovation
            Matevž Čelik, Mateja Kurir, Nuša Zupanc, and e-flux Architecture
            Framing Renovation is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana within the context of the 2023–24 LINA Architecture Program.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            If the industrial age dreamt of perpetual motion, then we must dream of perpetual climate.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Joe Osae-Addo and Kwabena Appeaning Addo
            My first thought was “How do I create a building that responds to the weather better than most,” so that I don’t have to use air conditioning? That was my primary focus.
            Positions
            Anthony Vidler
            The WZB, conceived a year later as part of the Internationale Bauausstellung (IBA) program, seemed to breach the codes of modernism even further. Its pavilions, diagramming historical building types, decked out in bright pink and blue stripes, and huddled behind an ornate late-nineteenth-century entrance block, seemed to many British and European critics to be a betrayal of the ethic of the Modern Movement.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Gail Brager and Mark DeKay
            Imagine for a moment what life would be like if you and everyone around you ate the same foods at every meal, never experienced weather or the sky’s changing light, heard only a constant monotone with no music or bird song, and lived devoid of art to delight the eye.
            The Gift
            Ana Ivanovska Deskova and Damjan Kokalevski
            The Universal Hall in Skopje is one of the city’s main landmarks, and has stood as a symbol of global solidarity for over sixty years.
            The Gift
            Turning down a gift of this magnitude, especially within a context of acute need, was more than just a mere departure from norms. It was a sobering declaration that illuminates the complexities of producing social impact design within communities marred by long-standing neglect, and highlighted the nuanced, occasionally fraught, nexus between philanthropy and the practice of architecture and urban design.
            The Gift
            The confrontation between China and the Soviet Union/bloc during this time was ideologically charged by the question of how to get socialism right, and the difference between their respective aid practices illustrated this.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            As I was writing this, the mid-June daytime temperature in Beijing reached 40°C, exceeding the average by nearly 10 degrees. In times like these, it …
            The Gift
            Bonaventure Soh Bejeng Ndikung, Andres Lepik, and Łukasz Stanek
            Things are not necessarily limited to being either a challenge or opportunity. They are often both. There are times when the building is a great challenge, while there are other times when it is an opportunity because it forces us to think differently.
            The Gift
            Plugged In to the Community In order to explain the influence of technology in East Palo Alto, California, it is best to start by examining the his…
            The Gift
            Jasmina Cibic
            From parliamentary structures and other protocol architecture to World Expositions, history is replete with buildings whose interiors have served as the ultimate theatres of power.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Florian Idenburg
            Since the founding of your office, you’ve built several cultural projects across New York City, but, recently, you have started working on housing projects, all of which are in Brooklyn.
            The Gift
            Łukasz Stanek and Kwasi Ohene-Ayeh
            Besides the university’s own experimental farms supervised by the Faculty of Agriculture, individual farming activities were not foreseen by the Cubitt plan, nor by the plans that followed. The presence of farmers reveals an ecology defined by agricultural production that ties the campus to the towns and villages nearby.
            The Gift
            In the second half of the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, experienced a significant transformation in its infrastructure and housing.
            The Gift
            Łukasz Stanek, Damjan Kokalevski, Andres Lepik, and e-flux Architecture
            The Gift is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture, Architekturmuseum der TUM in the Pinakothek der Moderne, and Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Michigan.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Salmaan Craig
            Today’s drug of choice is convenience. We live cut off from its side effects, surrounded by unnoticed magic. Flick a switch, and cool air decants from expected places.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Bioclimatically conditioned public spaces can bring equity to the city by making comfort more accessible. But these public spaces could also be something more.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Second Edition
            Today, comfort in the home has too often come to mean excess. Home describes not a space to be comfortable, but rather a space that is convenient, a servant to the whims of its occupant.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Ikko Kobayashi and Fumi Kashimura
            We aimed to approach the architecture in the same way, which meant carefully observing and reinterpreting the environment, climate, way of life, spatial arrangements, and materialities that can be seen in Kampala.
            Interdependence
            Christian Nyampeta and Feza Kayungu Ramazani
            When describing the time leading up to the beginnings of Centre d’art Waza, an art center in Lubumbashi that he co-founded in 2010 and has led ever since, Patrick Mudekereza speaks in a voice full of gratitude and contagious with joy.
            Interdependence
            Christ Mukenge, Lydia Schellhammer, and Sorana Munsya
            From my point of view, your way of producing art in Kinshasa and circulating it creates surreal situations by breaking down the boundaries that separate social, geographical, and conceptual realities that coexist in the same space of the city. Could you tell us how your duo came about?
            Impostor Cities
            At a time when the Berlin Wall had largely lowered the city’s temperature and shifted the focus of the Cold War elsewhere, its symbolic presence was multiplied exponentially by films that cemented Berlin’s reputation as a city of intrigue and action.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            The Color, Green We scuttled along village roads we pretended were runways. Back then Green was just a color and not a manifesto Back then…
            Accumulation
            The narrative of the tall timber building has, in the last ten years, become firmly tied to carbon. The typical narrative is that that the more we build with timber (any timber), the more we make a climate-positive impact.
            Accumulation
            Nicole Starosielski and Iago Bojczuk
            The infrastructure of the “global” internet has long been concentrated in the geographic North. Data centers—the warehouses of the internet wher…
            Accumulation
            Unlike the enduring half-life of radioactive materials whose toxicity lasts for thousands of years, evanescent clouds in the sky are the embodiment of impermanence and ephemerality.
            Accumulation
            Kim Förster
            NEST, short for “Next Evolution in Sustainable Building Technology,” is an experimental building and research center on the outskirts of Zurich that seeks to re-imagine how society can produce and use buildings differently.
            Accumulation
            Martin Man
            One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Hong Kong is known as much for its position as a major global financial center as for its tightly packed high-rise urban form, a reputation proliferated through distinctive images of its skyline and towering residential housing.
            Accumulation
            Adam Bobbette
            I am at the ruined Shell refinery. Bitumen was made here until 1986. Now it is shaggy yellow berms with rubble inside. Thistles, snails in a tube, a plastic-coated chain-link fence falls from the post, brambles with plastic bags. A concrete slab scoured by ocean waves. Rusted rebar, mounds of granite, shattered loading docks, a pipeline to nowhere. The refinery remains are eroding into the ocean.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Architects and designers tend to think of themselves as agents of change and innovation, yet what they do is overwhelmingly reactionary. Indeed, design mobilizes and transforms disparate objects and materials towards one another, unlocking their ability to communicate and interact.
            Accumulation
            Macarena Gómez-Barris
            The funneling of profits from resource extraction into the museum and cultural industries, as well as within digital economies, is central to uncovering the submerged capitalist relations and their inevitably close connections to more generalized conditions of pollution.
            Accumulation
            Andrea Molina Cuadro
            In comparison with land and later the oceans, both the air and subsoil have historically better resisted processes of observation, appropriation, exploitation, and control. However, in the context of global warming, international protocols and technoscientific innovation attempt to territorialize aerial and underground realms.
            Accumulation
            Chang Jiat Hwee, Petros Phokaides, and Panayiota Pyla
            Economic theories and calculations shape the way societies construct value, which in turn structures architectural production, which in turn influences the environment.
            Impostor Cities
            Craig Buckley
            What does it mean to engage the architectural worlds of cinema at a moment when cinema no longer dominates the experience of moving images, when celluloid film has been displaced by digital video, and when atomized online streaming has largely eclipsed the collective reception of movies on the big screen?
            Impostor Cities
            Simone C Niquille
            While The Lion King was praised for its realism, automated vacuum cleaners are ridiculed for their inability to navigate the home. Both, however, rely on virtual environments, digital twins created in game engines to replicate the real world.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            The environmental crisis could lead to the emergence of a new, strange form of communion between beings and things. But up until now, the opposite has happened.
            Impostor Cities
            It’s August, 1971. Things are generally quiet on campus at Simon Fraser University (SFU), the newly constructed modernist icon from architect Arthur Erickson, set upon a grand hill overlooking Vancouver’s downtown core and its backdrop of the ocean harbor and north shore mountains.
            Impostor Cities
            Matteo Mastrandrea
            Hollywood’s botanical apathy has often borne radical fruit, enabling motion pictures to represent vegetal life in ways which trouble orthodox systems of thought “bent on setting knowledge and existence within exact epistemic and ontological limits.”
            Impostor Cities
            Janine Marchessault
            Material and design elements of the built environment that are durable rather than ephemeral, distinctive in their shape and tied to the unique character of places are what he calls “constituent facts” and exert a semiotic force. They are “those tendencies which, when they are suppressed, inevitably reappear.”
            Impostor Cities
            Thomas Balaban, David Theodore, Jennifer Thorogood, and e-flux Architecture
            Impostor Cities is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and The Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto within the context of its eponymous exhibition, which was initially commissioned by the Canada Council for the Arts for the 17th Venice Architecture Biennale.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Rachael Wakefield-Rann
            The modernist optimism that saw the advent of air-conditioning, mass produced materials, standardized buildings, and global distribution networks is predicated on the illusion that we have transcended our ecologies. However, as we have continued on this trajectory, our bubbles have come to seem increasingly porous.
            Hydroreflexivity
            Emanuele Coccia
            The present conditions we are experiencing—and trying to designate with different names, all equally inadequate: Anthropocene, climate crisis, Capitalocene, etc.—are unprecedented, not only from a historical or ecological point of view, but also and especially from a cognitive and political point of view.
            Hydroreflexivity
            The construction of the Santa Clara dam (1963–73) on the Mira River created a 12,000-hectare “irrigation perimeter” for hydro-agricultural exploitation along a 41-kilometer strip of Portuguese coast in the southwest of Alentejo, between Vila Nova de Milfontes and the village of Rogil.
            Hydroreflexivity
            Only a few hours after the heavy rain began, water and detritus overflowed and destroyed the stream banks of the island’s principal localities. Taking back areas of unduly occupied flood plain, torrents of water swept away everything in its path.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Marc Angélil and Cary Siress
            Despite all design intentions, nothing ever goes as planned. Everything eventually breaks down. Ultimately, whatever is there will have to be fixed.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Soha Macktoom, Nausheen H. Anwar, and Mariam Ahmad
            In the design of Karachi’s largest public university, notions of identity and specific visions of development have long overshadowed conversations about thermal comfort and heat exposure.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Roger Boltshauser and Matthias Peterseim
            This paradigm of site-specificity was eliminated with the introduction of fossil-fuel driven HVAC. However, dealing with local climates has not been totally forgotten; even celebrated modern architects like Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn made efforts to adapt to different climate zones.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Aleksandra Kędziorek
            The Hansen family clothed and unclothed their home according to the rhythm of the seasons. During heatwaves, they would place a tulle curtain in the doorway. During frosty weather, a thick, quilted fabric was nailed to the front door to insulate the hall.
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide
            Daniel A. Barber, Jeannette Kuo, Ola Uduku, Thomas Auer, and e-flux Architecture
            After Comfort: A User’s Guide is a project by e-flux Architecture in collaboration with the University of Technology Sydney, the Technical University of Munich, the University of Liverpool, and Transsolar.
            Reconstruction
            Joanna Kusiak, Oleksandr Kravchuk, Simon Johnson, Vladyslav Rashkovan, and Denise Ferreira da Silva
            We all are now witnessing what globalization is all about. We realize that our degree of interdependence is such that it is not only our shared humanity that makes us care about what’s happening to the population of Ukraine, but also our daily lives, sometimes in painful ways.
            Reconstruction
            Amidst these ongoing debates and reconstruction efforts, past experiences of rebuilding are continuously being invoked. There are comparisons being made not just with reconstruction precedents, but also with regard to the war itself. Reconstruction is indeed often linked to the type of war fought, the levels of destruction, the impact on cities, the morale and cultures of memory connected to it.
            Reconstruction
            Polina Baitsym
            Narratives that brashly equate “Soviet” with “russian” have been noxiously amplified both within and beyond Ukraine since the beginning of russia’s full-scale invasion. These narratives are complicit in the obliteration of Ukraine’s twentieth-century cultural heritage, which was already threatened by the indiscriminate process of decommunization and scornful ambitions of urban developers.
            Reconstruction
            Ammar Azzouz and Ievgeniia Gubkina
            Allowing myself to talk personally is something that’s helped me a lot during wartime. I’ve had to lean on these emotions, on the belief that it’s okay to feel all these things. It’s really difficult to allow yourself to go through such a traumatic experience and try to understand, to feel everything.
            Reconstruction
            These numbers are immense. Where the funds to rebuild will come from and in what form (loans, investments, grants) are questions of great importance. But of equal importance are the questions of what gets rebuilt, where, when, and how.
            Reconstruction
            Lost lives cannot be rebuilt. The human psyche and culture has, however, developed mechanisms to cope with loss. This is the work of the living to mourn and remember. But the lives of the dead will be never repaired. Reparation is a gift to the living, those who can repair and reconstruct their lives and their environments.
            Reconstruction
            Joanna Kusiak, Oleksandr Kravchuk, Simon Johnson, Vladyslav Rashkovan, and Luke Cooper
            The expert panel and open roundtable “Restitutions: Appropriation, Expropriation, Regulation” was held on September 11, 2022 as part of the international symposium “The Reconstruction of Ukraine.” An edited transcript of the panel is below, and a transcript of the roundtable which followed will be published separately.
            Reconstruction
            Through the systemic protracted destruction of networks and connections between bodies, places, and things, trauma gains a “collective, spatial, and material dimension.” This trauma, or rather multiple traumas, is also emplaced in the urban fabric, as cities and the urban way of life has become a particular target of attacks in attempts of what can be called “forced demodernization.”
            Reconstruction
            It was the summer of 1989. Residents of Fergana, one of the largest cities in what was then the Uzbek SSR, brought carefully picked garden fruits, vegetables, and herbs to the bazaar, their sweet-spicy smells beckoning. Cats crawled around, trying to get any kind of attention. Locals and tourists alike flocked to the square.
            Reconstruction
            As the most social, eternal, and solid form of heritage, architecture is also the most vulnerable and fragile during the war. It’s impossible to protect it.
            Reconstruction
            Daša Anosova, Michał Murawski, Dan Jonas Roche, and e-flux Architecture
            How is it possible to envision rebuilding when the field is in a constant state of flux? How long will it take until any strategy proposed is rendered obsolete? What value can scholars offer when war, destruction, and resistance are still underway and there is no end in sight?
            Positions
            An integral theme that runs across both the British and Mexico pavilions is to draw attention to the forgotten and underrepresented public spaces that shape and are shaped by diasporic and indigenous communities. These spaces, often unnoticed and overlooked, have become the foundation for both pavilions to highlight architectures that represent a future in which social practices of collectivization are celebrated and accounted for within the built environment.
            Positions
            Antoinette Yetunde Oni
            However, the biennale’s recognition of the Nigerian “artist-designer,” an honor typically reserved for better-known architects and architectural theorists like Lina Bo Bardi, Kenneth Frampton, and Paulo Mendes da Rocha, brings Nwoko’s ideas and design approach to the fore, as well as those of the Zaria Art Society movement he was a part of as a student. Nwoko’s work, which spans from painting, carving, and sculpture, to theater set designs and architecture, is characterized by experimental tropical builds and a veneration of traditional West African craft, and stands as a prime twentieth-century example of decolonial and decarbonized African architecture.
            Positions
            Yet despite its decline, Pan-Africanism’s ideals of emancipation, unity, and sovereignty remain in the collective African consciousness, informing political organizations and new cultural and artistic formations. The 18th Venice Architecture Biennale is one such formation.
            Positions
            Sharon Lam
            There is a Queenstown on every continent on Earth except for Antarctica. Wherever there is a Queenstown, indigenous land has been overwritten with names and symbols of British colonialism.
            Positions
            “Often, the story of Tropical Modernism is told as one of a gift to Africa,” explains Nana Biamah-Ofosu, co-curator of the Applied Arts Pavilion i…
            Positions
            The backslashes represent the colonial acts of land division and dispossession that founded the country and allowed for the commodification and privatization of housing, which in turn led to housing alienation, defined here as the condition of being separated from our fundamental connections to home. In this sense, the eclectic team of six curators draw a structural connection between historical acts of settler colonialism and contemporary forms of housing alienation.
            Positions
            These dualities—both between the earthworks’ nurturing and defensive purposes, and between the frivolity of the Biennale and Ukraine’s participation while under invasion—make the Ukrainian Pavilion a surreal, conflicting experience.
            Hydroreflexivity
            Ifor Duncan
            For the fathers of the dam, a masterpiece of Italy’s rapid post-war industrialization, Paolini stated that there is an eerie sense that the mountain collapsed, but the dam—sculpted to a morbid perfection—survived the ensuing landslide. Casting a great shadow into the ravine, Vajont now stands as a tomb to the megalomania of hydropower engineering.
            In Common
            In response to the worldwide economic recession of 2008, the housing cooperative La Borda was born from the desire of a community of people to create a dignified living environment.
            In Common
            Mawena Yehouessi
            Beware of the Triple C, like a tendency to conflate, capture, and capitalize. Communities as collectivity aren’t necessarily the same as communit…
            In Common
            Huda Tayob
            Making home is a practice of creating a common space with the presence of many other pasts. Home is always both present and distant; a difficult and contested terrain which must be worked at and maintained.
            In Common
            Elisa Iturbe and Stanley Cho
            What is required to address these issues is nothing less than a general reorientation and reorganization of social space, away from extractive economies and industrial production, and towards maintenance, stewardship, repair, and care.
            In Common
            Beyond implementation, however, mosque architecture in France remains largely influenced by the places of origin of its immigrant Muslim populations, which consolidates the image of Islam as foreign to France, rather than a legitimate part of the national religious landscape. Public architecture of French mosques fails to reflect the diversity—and thus meet the needs—of the French Muslim community.
            In Common
            With this encounter we had two aspirations: Firstly, to meet the city in a confrontation with reality that refuses the purely aesthetic (the former often being stronger than the latter) and removes the idea of the city. Secondly, we wanted to confront the specter of the past and present being positioned as dual paradigms. How, then, do we meet and situate ourselves in the city as a site; how do we see it and render it not as a subject or scene, but as real conditions in time?
            In Common
            Lagos is a megacity of twenty-four million people, where the legacies of slavery and colonialism have set in motion a great migration of an estimated two thousand people daily from across West Africa. As infrastructures of extraction—from the slave factory to the mega port—intensify development along the coastline, more and more people are drawn across a threshold of no return.
            In Common
            Jesko Fezer
            Since 2011, the Studio Experimental Design at the HFBK Hamburg has been offering support to people in the neighborhood of St. Pauli and elsewhere in the city who, for economic or socio-cultural reasons, do not have access or are prevented from wielding the agency of design.
            In Common
            Ivonne Santoyo-Orozco
            Among the most successful models in Latin America that have managed to foster a life in common across generations, many demonstrated that living beyond the ideology of capitalism can be sustained through an alliance between collective property and popular education.
            In Common
            David Brown, arc en rêve, and e-flux Architecture
            In Common is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture, the Chicago Architecture Biennial, UIC College of Architecture, Design, and the Arts, and ar…
            Hydroreflexivity
            Ameneh Solati
            Draining the Marshes In the mid-1970s, a forty-five-minute-long documentary film by Kassem Hawal titled Al-Ahwar (The Marshes) presented a window i…
            Positions
            The Alumni of N.A.W. 4
            e-flux Architecture is proud to announce a collaboration with alumni from the fourth cohort of New Architecture Writers, an intensive year-long progra…
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            Federico Campagna
            Thus, Ibn Tufail claimed, all true philosophers are born: by looking around and inside themselves, and then translating their observations into practical abstractions that can guide their lives.
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            In 2086, without precedent, a great, discretionary power was granted to the organization for the Decarbonization Initiative. People from all walks of life united by a shared vision temporarily put aside their main professions and sat down at the roundtable.
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            Eman Abdelhadi and M. E. O’Brien
            I’m on Fire Island, and I met a ghost. I had to tell you, and apparently the only way to do so is a handwritten letter! They cut off our phones and augs. This is such a bizarre format, but here we are.
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            Yunjeong Han
            If there is any civilization remaining on earth in the year 2086, it will be an ecological civilization. An anti-ecological industrial civilization that exceeds the earth’s capacity will likely still exist on a much smaller scale than today, but we will no longer call it “civilization.” People in regions that fail to adapt to the rapidly changing conditions on earth or fail to build an ecological civilization will live lives like scenes from disaster movies, constantly pressed for survival.
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            Alice Bucknell
            The body sought out what it could no longer sense, but the brain couldn’t stomach that absence. It was as if the reduction of the senses also shut down the sense of self, negating one’s existence in the world.
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            There is an abundance of data, predictions, and signs that the climate crisis is on the verge of catastrophe. However, I do not want to imagine a future without humans. Even in the very worst case, I don’t want to give up hope that a small number of people, living close to the land in a small corner of the earth, will survive.
            Tomorrow’s Myths
            Soik Jung, Kyong Park, and e-flux Architecture
            Tomorrow’s Myths is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and “2086: Together How?,” the Korean Pavilion at the 18th International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezia curated by Soik Jung and Kyong Park.
            Appropriations
            Françoise Vergès
            In the many forms it took throughout 2020, the movement challenging statues is irreversible and that is why it is under attack. It is part of the global challenge to a modernity that shaped the world according to racial and sexist criteria that destroyed cultures, silenced voices, erased knowledge, and pillaged to fill its museums and palaces.
            Appropriations
            Germane Barnes
            Anti-colonial discourse has presented an opportunity to better understand the legacy of Africa as it pertains to the architected environment. One such area is that of classical architecture and the legacies of North Africa.
            Appropriations
            Rolando Vázquez and Sammy Baloji
            A lot of communities in Brussels don’t have Belgian roots, but they are living in the city, and make the city what it is. KANAL asked my studio and I to create an exhibition that could bring visibility to the Congolese community, in relation to the colonial history that brings these two communities together: the Belgians and Congolese.
            Appropriations
            The future will tell us whether Belgium’s public space can still become the site for reconciliation with the country’s colonial past, or whether the report will remain as a paper, decolonial utopia.
            Appropriations
            Though it is becoming increasingly clear that Africa had many long, rich, and diverse traditions of writing from ancient times to the present that have been largely unacknowledged, most people in Sub-Saharan Africa did not adopt phonetic writing systems until the late nineteenth century. Without easy access to self-produced written documents recording African history, historians have relied on documents written by Arab and European visitors with their attendant problems.
            Appropriations
            Arguing that the pioneering days were over and time had come to guarantee a return on investment, Leplae made a case for the colonizer’s house as the crucial instrument for a successful mise en valeur (exploitation) of the colonized territory of the Belgian Congo. “To colonize the Congo,” Leplae wrote, “it is necessary to make it inhabitable.”
            Appropriations
            Nick Axel, Sammy Baloji, Silvia Franceschini, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Estelle Lecaille
            Appropriations is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and CIVA within the context of its exhibition “Style Congo: Heritage & Heresy,” featuring contributions by Germane Barnes, Sandrine Colard, Johan Lagae and Paoletta Holst, I.I.I. Osayimwese, Debora Silverman, Rolando Vázquez and Sammy Baloji, and Françoise Verges.
            Hydroreflexivity
            In founding mythologies of the world, water can be the beginning or the destruction of everything; fertility and creation; everything that existed before the ashes.
            Hydroreflexivity
            Andreia Garcia, Ana Neiva, Diogo Aguiar, and e-flux Architecture
            Hydroreflexivity is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and “Fertile Futures,” the Portuguese Pavilion at the 18th International Architecture Exhibition, La Biennale di Venezia curated by Andreia Garcia with Ana Neiva and Diogo Aguiar.
            Interdependence
            It is September 4, 2022, the day our comrade and friend, Isaac Nana Osei Kwadwo (aka Ashanti immigrant) would be finally laid to rest in his hometown in Offinso, Ashanti Region, Ghana.
            Interdependence
            Terra Alta Community
            To some people, it’s a barely noticeable gate in the slip road by a busy highway, concealed by a splatter of potted plants and tall trees. To others, it’s a curiosity, an enigma, either a place of derision or wonder. It’s good, bad, confusing, needed, comforting, unsettling, too broad, and too specific by turns.
            Interdependence
            Oris Aigbokhaevbolo
            Depending on the direction you are coming from, you may need to walk or drive through a street with a confusion of names to get to the Vernacular Art-…
            Chronograms of Architecture
            The following diagrams redeploy the visual language of evolutionary histories of architecture to reveal the racial epistemologies that animated these discourses in the past.
            Chronograms of Architecture
            If we look at buildings as architects, what matters is not so much what digital technologies can do, but what we could not do without them. This is the critical component of innovation, and only an enquiry into this creative leap may help us understand why and how digital tools have changed the way architecture is conceived and built, and the way it looks.
            Where is Here?
            Malique Mohamud
            For the past few years, we’ve been working together with the community of Bospolderplein, another public square in Rotterdam West, on a project called Het Plein, or “the square.”
            Chronograms of Architecture
            Urtzi Grau and Francesca Hughes
            Given that architecture’s future is written in its schools, we contend that of the many predictive diagrams that Charles Jencks produced, it was his 1969 dissimilarity matrix of the most future-shaping architects of the day that possessed the keenest foresight.
            On Models
            In 1986 Fischer Black, one of the founders of contemporary finance, made a rather surprising announcement: bad data, incomplete information, wrong decisions, excess data, and fake news, all make arbitrage—purportedly risk-free investments, such as the profit that can be made when one takes advantage of slight differences between currency exchanges (or the price of the same stack) in two different locations—possible.
            Chronograms of Architecture
            Bryony Roberts and Abriannah Aiken
            A vast landscape of feminist spatial practices around the world, stretching back in time and forwards into the future, resists power and imagines new futures through experimental storytelling, community-building, educating, material testing, and fabricating new architectures.
            On Models
            The digital twin is more than simply a visual representation of the physical structure, however: it collects and analyzes real-time data about the different environmental and behavioral influences acting upon the structure to optimize user comfort, security, and energy performance.
            Chronograms of Architecture
            It is well known that within Marxism the term “base” addresses the way in which human beings produce and reproduce themselves, while “superstruc…
            Chronograms of Architecture
            Without the pretence of a stable discipline producing fixed objects, architecture becomes part of a febrile and disrupted world, vulnerable to its contingencies. No longer standing outside and applying superficial patches to the wounds of climate, architecture is climate binds the discipline and its humans to the scars, violence, and emotions of climate breakdown.
            Half-Life
            While the world tackles a myriad of calamities—a pandemic, floods, wildfires, hurricanes, famine, systemic racism, structural inequality, and police violence, among others—the possibility of nuclear disaster inexorably returns to arrest our attention.
            Half-Life
            Livia Krohn Miller
            September 2021: I find myself in a dusty corner of New Mexico to see one of the wonders of the American West: the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, the United States’ only deep geologic long-lived radioactive waste repository.
            Half-Life
            Idinthakarai is one of many fishing villages, hemmed in with coconut trees, which dot the Tamil Nadu coastline. Out here, the sea, the church, and other people’s lives are almost always within earshot. The village’s quaint appearance, however, belies Idinthakarai’s status as the epicenter of India’s longest anti-nuclear struggle.
            Half-Life
            Camille Georgeson-Usher
            When confronted with ambiguity, it is often hard to allow a specific identifier to take hold, as it can be difficult to find out what that is. The perception that many have of something they don’t know—like Rym’s identity and origins—has so often in her travels lifted to the surface as confusion, the need to name her, and then an odd type of fear in their unknowing. She feels this fear too, because in this country, she’s not safe. Few Indigenous women are.
            Half-Life
            On February 13, 1960, the French military detonated the first of seventeen atomic bombs in the Algerian Sahara. The site of the inaugural bomb was Reggane—a district with a town, villages, and an oasis—located in the Tanezrouft Plain of the colonized desert, approximately 1,000 kilometers south of Algiers.
            Half-Life
            Raqs Media Collective
            In the days when the mail arrived in an envelope—franked by a stamp, delivered by a postman, and slid under the door—there used to be pen-pals. This was a friendship of strangers, for strangers, by strangers. The more distant, the stranger the proximity.
            Half-Life
            Talei Luscia Mangioni
            The ocean is our mat. Woven from dried pandanus leaves, like the currents of the ocean, our mat connects us to one another across our wansolwara, our sea of islands that stretches from West Papua to Mā’ohi Nui (French Polynesia). This mat is one where we come to talk story, share, feast, laugh, learn, and imagine with one another.
            Half-Life
            If you can harness plutonium, the element at the heart of the nuclear inferno, then you can magnify human power to a super-hero level. In tandem, plutonium has the power to re-map territories, produce new borders—not just between people, but between humans and the environment. By extension, plutonium spatializes power.
            Half-Life
            Himali Singh Soin, Irene Sunwoo, and e-flux Architecture
            Half-Life is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the Art Institute of Chicago within the context of its exhibition “Static Range” by Himali Singh Soin, featuring contributions by Kate Brown, Camille Georgeson-Usher, Samia Henni, Sabu Kohso, Talei Luscia Mangioni, Livia Krohn Miller, Radiowaves Collective, and Raqs Media Collective.
            On Models
            No one is quite sure who the Trickster is, where it came from, what it is, or what purpose it serves, but it tends to unexpectedly show up in cultural narratives, often exposing human flaws and reminding us of our collective interactions, including exposing our unscrupulous behaviors.
            On Models
            Model making has no clear point of origin or single intention but rather constitutes an action that is constantly remade by its execution. Model making has functioned not only as an operation characteristic of certain forms of production or professional institutions, but also as a significant cultural technique when, under delimited historical situations, it intersected with other epistemic, technological, and social systems.
            Interdependence
            Bhavisha Panchia, Carly Whitaker, and Chad Cordeiro
            The ecology of the artworld in South Africa today relies on support from public and private institutions. Yet there is a deficiency of state and municipal funding for maintaining public art institutions as well as supporting exhibition programming, acquisitions, and publishing.
            Interdependence
            The Center for Contemporary Art, Lagos (CCA) was founded as a not-for-profit art space, gallery, library and educational center in 2007, a year before my first visit. Its intention was to allow new voices to emerge along with new forms of artistic thought and expression. A space for Lagosians to find, interact, learn, and share from the wealth of creative knowledge and practice that has existed and exists in the city as well as from places far and wide.
            Interdependence
            Eléonore Hellio
            Originally from this vast region, Bebson Elemba aka Bebson de la Rue is in the process of turning his Ngbwaka home into an autonomous space for collective participatory creation. Step by step, an informal avant-garde will begin to take shape around his artistic practice.
            Interdependence
            Keleketla! Library and Sumayya Vally
            The history of the Drill Hall, of the 1956 Treason Trial, became fertile ground to expand our programming with the After School Programme. Some of the publications that we printed about the heritage of the Drill Hall and the history of South Africa were meant to become integrated in local school curricula, which doesn’t speak much about the 1956 Treason Trial.
            Interdependence
            Colin Keays, Federico Martelli, and e-flux Architecture
            Inventive forms of collaborative and critical practice are often born in cities where the infrastructure of cultural funding and subsidies is limited. In parallel to supporting artists and curators themselves, independent art initiatives often serve fundamental roles in their wider communities, too.
            Horizons
            In Dubai’s industrial district of Al Quoz is a museum of failed futures. More precisely, it’s a warehouse filled with 3D-printed architectural models.
            Horizons
            Faced with climate change and other interconnected existential crises in the twenty-first century, it is quickly becoming a cliché to say that there is a strong need to “imagine better futures.”
            Horizons
            Paul Bouet
            In February 2016, the solar power station of Ouarzazate was inaugurated in Morocco, on the north-western edges of the Sahara.
            Digestion
            Reif Larsen
            It must be said from the outset that Lila disagreed with the whole idea of Geffen’s father coming to live with them.
            Digestion
            Feifei Zhou, Zahirah Suhaimi, and Jefree Salim
            The interface between land and water is nature’s metabolic process. In this messy, everchanging, and unpredictable zone, different kinds of porosities emerge and become the birthplace of many more-than-human livelihoods. Water channels are nature’s blood vessel network.
            Digestion
            Montserrat Bonvehi-Rosich
            What does it mean to be a skillful cook? Over the last several centuries, the skillful cook was arguably the one who most successfully healed the historical wounds of modernity by reconciling traditional dishes with modern techniques.
            Digestion
            Aude-Line Dulière, Juliet Haysom, and James Westcott
            The term “circularity” implies a kind of supreme intentionality, where the lifecycle of a material has been pre-ordained by wise planners, long in advance of its “birth,” in a series of cute diagrams.
            Digestion
            The challenges of repairing broken food systems in this time of dire climate crisis necessitates cross-scalar strategies.
            Digestion
            Rachel Armstrong and Rolf Hughes
            Embryologically-speaking, your living home is grown from a primitive architectural streak which is cultured by hand in our studio using the stem cells that you provide.
            Horizons
            Stephanie Wakefield and Glenn Dyer
            For the last two years, a battle has gripped the southern rim of Atlanta. Much more than a local conflict or environmental defense activism, the battle for the South River Forest brings to the fore critical questions of urban life in the age of climate change.
            Horizons
            Gökçe Günel
            In a context of uncertainty about the political, economic, and environmental future of the Arabian Peninsula, marketing and promotional material for NEOM plays a vital role, demonstrating that Saudi Arabia will diversify its economy away from fossil fuels and overcome possible ecological, social, and financial crises with the help of new design solutions, business models, and technological innovations.
            Horizons
            “Before” and “after”: no expressions can be more commonplace, yet none, when you come to think about it, can be more perplexing.
            Horizons
            Derk Loorbach, Véronique Patteeuw, Léa-Catherine Szacka, Peter Veenstra, and e-flux Architecture
            Architecture has long been one of the most powerful means of imagining, visualizing, and constructing futures. Like a projectile, the architectural project is thrown forward, reaching into and determining the conditions of what is to come. But where architecture ultimately lands— and what actually makes it to the end of the trajectory—can never be known fully in advance. Not to mention the multifarious costs and effects—the value—of bringing it down to earth.
            On Models
            Who can pick up the weight of Britain, Who can move the German load Or say to French, here is France again? Imago. Imago. Imago. —Wallace Stev…
            On Models
            Thea Brejzek and Lawrence Wallen
            Models are epistemic tools that assemble and disseminate knowledge, progressing a design incrementally while converging on a final object, form, or space. However, models are also physical and conceptual instruments of the cosmopoietic (world-making) act, capable of creating partial or entire worlds.
            On Models
            The pandemic condition of practice revealed the extent to which designers’ thinking depends on scale models.
            On Models
            Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and November Paynter
            On Models is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and The Museum of Contemporary Art Toronto within the context of its exhibition HOUSE OF CARD…
            Digestion
            Mae-ling Lokko
            Hot, moist air has long been a powerful, yet largely invisible, working fluid in the colonial and modern enterprise. Processes of air conditioning represent acts of metabolism, ensuring the adaptation of air to the project of human domestication.
            Digestion
            Lindsey Wikstrom
            Urban mining is the process of recovering materials that are lodged inside an already standing anthropic mass. Seeing material forms as resources rather than landfill waste can prevent mineral matter from being inefficiently re-buried.
            Digestion
            Digestion turns the outside into an inside. Our organism is never simply in the world but an intricate folding of outside into an inside. More precisely still, it is a fold that produces the very sense of an outside by constructing an interior seemingly detached from it.
            Digestion
            Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, Lydia Kallipoliti, and Areti Markopoulou
            Digestion is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the 2022 Tallinn Architecture Biennale, curated by Lydia Kallipoliti and Areti Markopoulou, featuring contributions by Rachel Armstrong and Rolf Hughes; Montserrat Bonvehi-Rosich; Aude-Line Duliere, Juliet Haysom, and James Westcott; Reif Larsen; Mae-ling Lokko; Meredith TenHoor; Mark Wigley; Lindsey Wikstrom; and Feifei Zhou, Zahirah Suhaimi, and Jefree Salim.
            Where is Here?
            Leonoor Zuiderveen Borgesius
            Located roughly thirty kilometers east from Amsterdam, the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve stretches out over about 5,600 hectares, about 3,000 of …
            Where is Here?
            In the 1970s, my parents were not allowed to live in the Van der Pekstraat in Amsterdam-North. Not around the corner in the Meeuwenlaan either. The reason? Amsterdam had designated neighborhoods, areas, streets, and apartment buildings where Surinamese were not welcome, even though they had a Dutch passport like everyone else.
            Where is Here?
            With its iconic archipelago of polders, clear-cut boundaries between rural and urban, straightened or purposely bent waterways, and highly efficient y…
            Where is Here?
            Introduction: Earth and the City About three years ago, I started a presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers b…
            Where is Here?
            Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Francien van Westrenen
            Where is Here? is a collaboration between Het Nieuwe Instituut and e-flux Architecture following Who is We?, the Dutch pavilion at the 2021 Venice Arc…
            Sick Architecture
            For all the scientific discovery and technological progress heralded by late modernity, its lasting legacy is also one of disenchantment and alienatio…
            Sick Architecture
            Resolution WHA67.8 was published as part of the World Health Organization’s 67th World Health Assembly in 2014, which offered a point of action for …
            Sick Architecture
            Gideon Boie
            Liberated from the exaggerated dreams of a healing environment, architectures of care can repair the old logic of separation for persons with mental a…
            Sick Architecture
            Holly Bushman
            We do not see the woman as inferior, but rather as having a different mission, a different value, than that of the man. Therefore we believed that t…
            Sick Architecture
            In May 1919, the literary magazine Xin qingnian / La Jeunesse published a short story by Chinese writer Lu Xun called “Medicine,” in which Old Chu…
            Sick Architecture
            Meredith TenHoor
            What would it mean to design buildings that exceed the economic accountings of liberal biopolitics, that instead offer an entirely different rationale…
            Sick Architecture
            Dante Furioso
            In 1913, a year before the Panama Canal was completed, the journalist Frederic J. Haskin wrote that “the conquest of the Isthmian barrier was the co…
            Sick Architecture
            On October 1, 1998, subcontractors with the US Department of Energy set up a “situation room” in downtown Richland, Washington, to monitor a myste…
            Sick Architecture
            Nicholas Shapiro
            I am convinced that the trailer or an improved version of it is, for better or for worse, the low cost dwelling of the future—lacking in solidity,…
            Sick Architecture
            Take Nebraska Interstate 87 as far as you can North till it becomes South Dakota Interstate 407. Where these two highways meet, you’ll see a tipi on…
            Sick Architecture
            The Covid-19 pandemic has revealed that international borders pervade far beyond their physical sites in order to alienate from within. In the United …
            Sick Architecture
            Every city, Vitruvius assumes in his first-century bce treatise On Architecture, needs walls.1 Deciding where to put them is the first thing to consid…
            Sick Architecture
            Alexandra Sastrawati
            Questioning the Potemkin Metropolis The interplay of rhythms—the rhythm of urban capitalism and the body’s rhythmic propensities—sometimes sy…
            Sick Architecture
            Iason Stathatos
            Of the many notorious origin myths of architecture, the story that directly relates to the insatiable, primordial human desire to eat remains one of t…
            Sick Architecture
            As far as Harriet Ann Brent Jacobs knew, life for an enslaved person was ghastly, and like many enslaved people she had learned to navigate the thin l…
            Sick Architecture
            Clemens Finkelstein
            Arrested in motion, Earth appears precariously imbalanced. Crowned with a turreted city model, the personification’s muscular body twists auspicious…
            Sick Architecture
            Marie de Testa
            A Highly Controlled Visibility Up until 1968, L’Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière in Paris treated women exclusively. During the time that Doc…
            Sick Architecture
            David Gissen
            Discussions of architectural form demonstrate how disability is negatively imprinted into the field of architecture. In architectural theory and the h…
            Sick Architecture
            Angela H. Brown
            Le doy fuego a la Fortaleza como se supone Y al otro día voy a la iglesia pa’ que me perdonen Mejor no quieras probar de qué estamos hechos A…
            Sick Architecture
            Xhulio Binjaku
            Plague Clouds On August 27th, 1883, the volcano of Krakatoa in the Indonesian islands erupted. Ashes and rocks flew miles high. Barometers wobbled …
            Sick Architecture
            Fabiola López-Durán
            At the inauguration of the First Brazilian Congress of Eugenics in July of 1929, the physician and anthropologist Edgar Roquette-Pinto addressed an au…
            Positions
            People have stopped visiting Los Angeles. They know if they wait long enough Los Angeles will come to them. So, watch for Los Angeles, appearing sho…
            Positions
            Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi and Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali Zamindar
            Partitions of territory are often ascribed to historically specific moments of accountability. While colonial partitions set the terms for politics an…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Civil Architecture
            The horizon is present in every exhibition. Most times it is simply an afterthought, a subliminal line that follows the viewer through the gallery, an…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Space Popular
            For visitors, the audio guide is a crucial point of access to the ideas and imaginations behind an exhibition. It is a friendly voice, arriving somewh…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Maria McLintock
            ­The neoliberalization of public services and austerity-led stripping of government finance towards the operation of museums across North America and…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Lev Bratishenko and Melanija Grozdanoska
            Exhibitions are environments of rigid climatic control. The ideal interior weather for artworks and artefacts require temperature and humidity to be k…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Mika Savela
            Captioning is anything but a routine curatorial task. There are styles and tendencies, even existing criteria for excellence, with annual awards given…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Anna Livia Friel and Marco Provinciali
            The brief, a specific genre of architectural writing, constitutes one of the necessary starting points for any architectural project, defining its obj…
            Workplace
            Nahyun Hwang and David Eugin Moon
            Settlement Many explicate that labor is constructed through settlement, and perhaps the most readily visible and visiblized histories of work, and …
            Accumulation
            The ground is all memoranda and signatures and many objects covered over with hints. —Ralph Waldo Emerson Ghost: Mark me! —William Shakesp…
            Workplace
            Kelly Pendergrast
            Interior, pizza arcade. Sioux Falls, 1995 or thereabouts. Family groups and clusters of post-soccer-practice tweens sit around napkin-strewn table…
            Workplace
            Arvand Pourabbasi and Golnar Abbasi
            In the context of contemporary forms of labor, “production” is often discussed and glamorized. But what is overlooked is the exhaustion that follo…
            Workplace
            Samiha Meem
            “Oh, that’s definitely a post.” I didn’t agree, but I posted it anyways. Not because it was done (it wasn’t), but because I was finished. *…
            Workplace
            Scene 1: Fantasy Cities I have no idea where I am. The landscape for some time now has looked like a non-place; as unremarkable and replicable as a…
            Workplace
            Helen Hester and Nick Srnicek
            Women, War, and Work While housing has long been intimately connected with capitalism via speculative finance, mortgage debt, and property developm…
            Workplace
            Alberte Lauridsen and Marianna Janowicz
            During the strictest Covid-19 lockdowns in the UK, the continued labor of waste collection workers and supermarket delivery drivers allowed other part…
            Workplace
            Andreas Petrossiants
            And if the wreckage of this inheritance will not be complete; if notwithstanding the crimes committed during this “civilized” war, we may still b…
            Workplace
            Dank Lloyd Wright
            From myriad sources, including the lived experience of our own lives, we know how deeply problematic practices of labor sourcing, organizing, and regu…
            Workplace
            Denisse Vega de Santiago
            Oppressed peoples are always asked to stretch a little more, to bridge the gap between blindness and humanity. —Audre Lorde1 On May 28, 2020 at a…
            Workplace
            Delivery Lines: Amazon’s Supply Chain In 2019 Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos made a critical articulation about contemporary capitalism, akin to Vanderbil…
            Workplace
            Nick Axel, Albert Ferré, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Megan Marin
            Workplace is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the Canadian Centre for Architecture within the context of its year-long research project…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Esther Choi
            The will to influence is at the core of any exhibition. —Bruce W. Ferguson1 The making of culture relies on interpretation for its own validity. …
            Solicited: Proposals
            Jia Yi Gu
            Having served as director of two Los Angeles-based non-profit organizations dedicated to architectural exhibitions, I am often implicated in the makin…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Mpho Matsipa, Lynhan Balatbat-Helbock, and Molemo Moiloa
            Western cultural institutions like the museum often presuppose an orderly spacing of time. The queue, in this sense, is anticipatory, but almost alway…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Gilly Karjevsky and Rosario Talevi
            Architects are often taught that everything is architecture. That they are educated in a discipline with no boundaries, which reaches all aspects of l…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Vasıf Kortun
            A decade and some years ago, I was preoccupied with the question of laying out the fundamentals for a new institution, an institution for the present….
            Solicited: Proposals
            Federico Martelli
            I once designed the exhibition for the collection of an important museum. The brief was simple: we were asked to work with the relationships between a…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Prem Krishnamurthy
            This contribution is intended to be listened to. The exhibition is open only at specific hours, from dusk to midnight. During these periods, you …
            Solicited: Proposals
            Shirley Surya
            It is timely to write a self-reflexive account of building the permanent architecture collection at M+, a museum for visual culture encompassing visua…
            Solicited: Proposals
            Maria Lind
            You are most likely sitting down while reading this. If not, please look for a place near you where you can take a seat and spend a moment. This text …
            Solicited: Proposals
            Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and James Taylor-Foster
            Dear reader, What happens in an architecture exhibition? What, and who is it for? What does it do, and how does it do it? Solicited: Proposals is a s…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            Achille Mbembe
            Humanity has been a constant, sometimes blind force in the history of the living world. To achieve its project of universal domination once and for al…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            The plain of Tavoliere, which makes up the largest portion of the district of Foggia, in the upper part of Italy’s southeastern Apulian region, toda…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            Megan Eardley
            In the mid-twentieth century, apartheid South Africa was home to some of the largest, deepest, and most profitable mines in the world. Operating more …
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            Since the 1950s, various petroleum and gas wells have been dug in African Saharan soils. Thousands of kilometers of pipelines have been built on Afric…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            Garissa Lodge Garissa Lodge is widely known as the first “Somali mall.” A multi-story building hosting mixed-use shopping and residential accom…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            Sarah Nuttall
            In her 2019 novel The Old Drift, Namwali Serpell writes about the Kariba Dam, southern Africa’s largest hydroelectric power source, and the great Za…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            I The Italian colonization of Libya began in 1911 and escalated under fascist rule, eventually leading to the brutal repression of the armed resist…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            It is July 1990. Janet Love, an uMkhonto we Sizwe (“Spear of the Nation,” abbreviated MK) commander, sits by herself in an office in Johannesburg …
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            In the mid-1880s, Kimberley’s diamond mines began constructing massive complexes to house their laborers.1 The closed compounds—so named because m…
            Coloniality of Infrastructure
            Kenny Cupers
            Coloniality of Infrastructure is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture, Critical Urbanisms at the University of Basel, and the African Centre fo…
            Treatment
            De Hogeweyk, in Weesp, the Netherlands, might seem eerily familiar, even if you’ve never been there.1 That is entirely by design. Opened in 2009, th…
            Treatment
            Magaly Tornay
            The strange story of the dreaming nurses of Münsterlingen came to me by a chance find in the archives. While researching the extensive experiments wi…
            Treatment
            Brittany Utting
            In 1925, on an undeveloped tract of forested land at the outskirts of the young city of Houston, entrepreneur and oil magnate George H. Hermann built …
            Treatment
            Fiona L. Kenney
            In the April 1881 issue of The Modern Review, a British periodical published from 1880 to 1884, a sardonic Frances Power Cobbe wrote: “It is the mis…
            Treatment
            When scholars first charted the nineteenth-century “invention” of the modern hospital around a half century ago, they posited a crucial change: a …
            Treatment
            Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Adam Jasper
            Treatment is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the Institute for the History and Theory of Architecture (gta), ETH Zürich, featuring co…
            Survivance
            Applications Invited: Transdisciplinary Scholar to Assist in Re-Designing Higher Education. Project Tasks: Whose knowledge? What is knowledge? What…
            Survivance
            Sarover Zaidi
            The movement that began from our fields Has travelled well beyond our fields, Your nefarious game stands exposed, This people’s movement will not…
            Survivance
            My little Tasmanian farm sits at 43° south. At this latitude, we are closer to Antarctica than we are to the top of Australia. The southerlies that c…
            Survivance
            Nityanand Jayaraman
            As I began writing this essay, an opinion piece titled “A Giant Poor Sighted Bird Stands in the Way of India’s Green Goals” from Bloomberg Green…
            Survivance
            Illuminating the overlooked history of so-called twentieth-century architecture in Hawai‘i, this special preview of A Justice-Advancing Architecture…
            Survivance
            Gloria Pavita
            Lubumbashi, a market Seforah is sent by her mother to Marche Kenya1 to purchase sombe2 and ngai ngai3 seeds along with bitoyo4 and kabambale.5 Tant…
            Survivance
            The word nostalgia derives from a sickness of home, from the trauma and longing one feels after being artificially and involuntarily ripped from your …
            Survivance
            Those of us subject to and subjected to the most brutal of human degradations have had to cultivate modes of being, other kinds of living, so that n…
            Survivance
            Carl Austin Hyatt
            In the mid-1980s, I was looking for a place to live and photograph.1 A place to lean into, to know in an intimate way. For years, I had been inspired …
            Survivance
            Vishwas Satgar
            Unleashing Ecocide The paradox of Western supremacy is that it begins with its own. Its practices of dispossession, barbarism, violence, and imperi…
            Survivance
            I’ve been still too long and my memory of home sustains me. But my memory of home is fuzzy and I need you to remember with me. I’ve been told my…
            Survivance
            Joar Nango and Axel Wieder
            Axel Wieder You have recently participated in a series of online discussions on indigenous or more specifically Sámi art and architectural practice, …
            Positions
            Benjamin H. Bratton
            The COVID-19 pandemic has included mass social mobilization toward a mutually-accountable separation from one another. Its bioethics sees each of us a…
            Survivance
            This feels like an in-between moment—something tricky to be present to, as if we are caught between a contested and violent past and a not-yet that …
            Survivance
            Maria Chávez
            The artist Julia Norton recently described a unique form of epilepsy that she has been managing, one that took her years to get diagnosed due to the a…
            Survivance
            Bailey Peryman and Kelly Dombroski
            Cultivate Christchurch, the Aotearoa New Zealand based urban farm and youth wellbeing project, has inspired people all over the world with its grounde…
            Cascades
            Jimenez Lai
            Life Support What time is it? 6am? 10pm? I am once again waking up to the reflection of my face against the perpetual darkness outside, peppered by…
            Survivance
            Mae-ling Lokko
            Within the last decade, fueled by global marketing campaigns and health trends, the coconut and its primary derivatives—oil, butter, milk, sugar, wa…
            Survivance
            Caroline A. Jones
            Hearing the buzz We humans evolved to survive in a world with specific types of matter and energy; our particular hominid ancestors thrived by favo…
            Survivance
            Jenna Sutela and Markus J. Buehler
            The video Wet-on-Wet (2021) by Jenna Sutela and Markus J. Buehler will be available to watch here on e-flux Architecture for the duration of Surviva…
            Cascades
            Rahel Aima
            On June 26, 2029, the Director launched the new moon. It was named Ruda, after the ancient pre-Islamic lunar deity. It made the bioluminescent coastli…
            Survivance
            They said with wonder and admiration, you are still alive, like hydrogen, like oxygen. —Dionne Brand1 In Christina Sharpe’s book In the Wa…
            Survivance
            1. Pinch Points I write from the watery, mountainous Pacific Northwest of North America. This is the bioregion that pulses between the tar sands, t…
            Survivance
            Black Quantum Futurism
            The Macon Housing Authority says they may have found a time capsule buried in the ground. The CEO of the authority, June Parker, says they discovere…
            Cascades
            Ingo Niermann
            The first people I fell in love with were terrorists. The German fear of the communist Red Army Fraction (RAF) peaked in 1977, when I turned eight yea…
            Survivance
            Willem Larsen
            Dominions of Mythologies All of us caught in the hurricane of the modern world are refugees from our bodies and our senses. It’s the natural animal…
            Survivance
            Gender-based violence in South Africa is often referred to as a silent pandemic, yet one that is widely known. In the first five days of the national …
            Survivance
            Kathryn Yusoff
            Dig. Geology and its kin network of extraction, natural resources, architectures of geomorphic transformation (dams, river straightening, climate chan…
            Cascades
            Richard Cottrell
            The North American Rift was discovered shortly after the end of the Great War, when it bisected a tractor on the morning run. Initial, informal tests …
            Survivance
            Survive. Exist. Strategize. Close. Endure. Hide. Reveal. Persist. Hope. Thrive. Plan. Create. Mobilize. Open. Propel. Writing and speaking about survi…
            Survivance
            Tyson Yunkaporta
            Midway through my life, I wake to find myself in a techno-dystopia, with no sense of where my proper pathway has gone. I have a muse, but no mentor to…
            Survivance
            Blackgirls young and old are memory keepers, cultural workers, love pillars, freedom mappers, and actors.1 Radical love is a regular praxis through wh…
            Cascades
            Xenia Chiaramonte
            I have to write a story I am not entitled to tell. A parallel botanical story of myself. A story that I was made to tell. Once upon a time, I was …
            Survivance
            Sigidm hanaa’na̱x, Smgyigyit, Łagyigyet, ada txa’nii gyeda galts’ap. Sm Łoodm ‘Nüüsm di waayu. Mootgm Goot di nooyu. La̱xsgyiik di p…
            Survivance
            Michelle Westerlaken
            As mostly solitary animals, octopuses tend to avoid humans. They spend their time in the depths of the sea in places we cannot easily visit. They are …
            Survivance
            Ainslee Alem Robson
            Having spent most of my life between cultural dissonance and cultural isolation, double consciousness has always been a part of my daily reality. Stru…
            Cascades
            Feifei Zhou
            I’ve been walking along this mountain belt for hours. I think I’m getting close—at least, according to the footage my drone captured yesterday. …
            Survivance
            The South African Nobel Laureate Nadine Gordimer once wrote that “[to write a short story] is to express from a situation in the exterior or interio…
            Survivance
            Kaya Barry and Samid Suliman
            Welcome to the shores of Moreton Bay, just to the east of the sunny, sub-tropical city of Brisbane (or Meanjin, in the language of the Turrbal people)…
            Survivance
            In the small north island township of Tāneatua stands Aotearoa New Zealand’s first living building. This building, known as Te Kura Whare, is locat…
            Survivance
            Hock e Aye Vi Edgar Heap of Birds
            My 7’ x 30’ forty-eight-piece mono print installations exist in two combined forms: a set of twenty-four primary prints accompanied by a set of tw…
            Survivance
            While generational resilience and resistance in the United States has been in my blood for four generations, like most immigrant families, my family n…
            Survivance
            There is flame, there is light. The flame scorches my pages, light illuminates and brightens them. When I write with the flame, it is because somethi…
            Survivance
            Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Troy Conrad Therrien
            Survivance is a collaboration between e-flux Architecture and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, with guest editors Natchee Blu Barnd, Black Quantum Fu…
            Cascades
            Kabage Karanja and Stella Mutegi
            “This can’t be architecture…” Kali wrote on his yellow layout paper while gripping his clutch pencil. He sat obtuse against his chair looking …
            Cascades
            When the Contagion reached Hong Kong in 1997, Philip Tose traveled to 2047 to take a lump sum loan from himself. Most people blamed the magnitude of t…
            Cascades
            Nick Axel, Aric Chen, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Martina Muzi
            Cascades is a collaboration between MAAT - Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology and e-flux Architecture within the context of the exhibition X i…
            Exhausted
            For almost all of human history, reproduction was inexorable, unimpeded, and imperative, as well as socially and medically dangerous. Reproduction ref…
            Exhausted
            The heraldic symbol of the Red Hand is believed to embody Ulster’s founding legend, in which the first to touch the land in a boat race claims its s…
            Exhausted
            “Akka,” Umesh began, making eye contact through the rearview mirror as he expertly chauffeured the car down the highway, and I sat in the back sea…
            Exhausted
            The In/Fertile Crescent From the delta of the Tigris-Euphrates to the valley of the Jordan river, curving around the Great Syrian Desert and passing …
            Exhausted
            Soil is the basis of life and a symbol of fertility. It has played a crucial role in history, giving birth to and fostered a variety of cultures and c…
            Exhausted
            For many Native American communities, understandings of family, fertility, and “collective continuance” are closely rooted to the protection, pres…
            Exhausted
            Nick Axel, Cooking Sections, and Nikolaus Hirsch
            Exhausted is a collaboration between SALT and e-flux Architecture within the context of CLIMAVORE: Seasons Made to Drift, a new solo exhibition by Coo…
            Confinement
            Armature Globale
            Apparently, we are cursed. In early September, they call. “We need an exhibition display for a show to be viewed remotely. Optional lockdown, no vis…
            Confinement
            Alessandro Bava and Lydia Ourahmane
            In 2019, I started working on a project to reinforce a wall, which is still in progress. The wall divided the corridor from a room at Residency 80121,…
            Confinement
            Aristide Antonas
            In her text about Afro-pessimism and its intellectual consequences, Catherine Malabou calls for a different understanding of life in prison than one n…
            Accumulation
            In 1963, Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew (1959–1990) called Singapore a “society in transition,” pushing the country on an upwards trajectory toward…
            Accumulation
            Lindsay Bremner and Beth Cullen
            In Yangon, Myanmar, displays of conspicuous wealth adorn high-end real estate developments located at strategic downtown intersections and clustered a…
            Confinement
            Nick Axel: As you move through this series of drawings, you start to realize you’re moving through a landscape, one that’s inscribed with history….
            Confinement
            Michel Kessler
            Covered in vaseline, polycarbonate, and mylar tape, the circular compound eye of knowledge occupies spaces and dreams, zones and fields, areas and sea…
            Confinement
            Alberto Lule, Savannah Ramirez, Rosie Rios, and Nathaniel Whitfield
            Nathaniel Whitfield The university and the prison both exist as metaphors and metonyms. As part of the Underground Scholars Initiative and the UCLA Pr…
            Confinement
            This text takes form through a spatial and (ever)special dialect.1 Liminal spaces between letterforms and words are (re)inhabited to extend and (dis-)…
            Critical Cooking Show
            The cooking show is as old as television itself. But why do we like watching the making of a meal that most of us will never cook, let alone eat? Dirt…
            Confinement
            On December 1, 2020, when the result of the Covid-19 test performed twelve hours earlier came back positive, I was transferred to a secure building in…
            Critical Cooking Show
            Asako Iwama, Iris Lacoudre, and Camille Sineau
            Kitchen tools offer a support structure that generates social, environmental, and spatial situations, due to the gestures they involve and relations t…
            Confinement
            Somewhere between the stereotomic stonework of classical architecture and the “service cavity” logic of the modern plenum wall lies a different co…
            Critical Cooking Show
            Olive trees hold the living knowledge of Mesopotamia. Since ancient times, they represent life, peace, and solidarity in the region. Soil composition …
            Confinement
            The diffuse house is the archetypal form of domestic space under late capitalism. The diffuse house operates 24/7. The diffuse house is ubiquitous. …
            Critical Cooking Show
            Laura Wilson
            In Laura Wilson’s Trained on Veda, a malted loaf and evolving artwork connected bakeries and galleries through veda bread. This film departs from th…
            Confinement
            Jack Self
            Every night on this planet, about six percent of humans sleep in tents. We can guess this figure based on the 1.6 billion who lack adequate housing an…
            Monument
            Philipp Oswalt
            Since the 1980s, a number of buildings have been reconstructed in Germany that are intended to contribute to the formation of German identity. While t…
            Monument
            The Perpetrator On November 29, 2017, I was in Rotterdam, having a meeting in a café, when I received a text message from my mother. I’d been ne…
            Critical Cooking Show
            The New World Syrup & The Fever Hand is a performance lecture inspired by the return of yellow fever in South America. This old disease is deeply …
            Confinement
            Inside Outside
            The three of them were summoned to the parlor. As per the protocol, they would from there on out be addressed as Subjects A, J, and P, respectively. T…
            Critical Cooking Show
            Zuri Camille de Souza
            Filmed during and just after a two-month lockdown in Marseille, Let Us Heal Together is a visual exploration of a chalky, herbaceous landscape, as wel…
            Confinement
            Space Popular
            Six degrees of separation is the theory that humans are always six or fewer social connections away from one another. Six degrees of freedom (6DoF) is…
            Critical Cooking Show
            Nelly Ben Hayoun and Rabah Ourrad
            In Moon Cook, Nelly Ben Hayoun and chef Rabah Ourrad both prepare a traditional North African dish, couscous royal, from their respective kitchens in …
            Critical Cooking Show
            Luiza Prado de O. Martins
            Danças is a meditation on the employment and preparation of three ingredients that connect the cuisines of Turkey and Brazil—okra, chilies, and ora…
            Confinement
            Manuel Gnam
            Meghan Rolvien At first, every landscape presents itself as immensely chaotic. Your maps question territorial realities and present a certain geograph…
            Confinement
            Pedro Pitarch
            The Homogenizing force of capitalism is incompatible with any inherent structure of differentiation: sacred-profane, carnival-workday, nature-cultur…
            Critical Cooking Show
            Ben Goldner and Emma Leigh Macdonald
            Consider the space of your kitchen. Who do you share it with? Are they human? Non-human? Could others be let in? Softening Cultures takes its time…
            Confinement
            Pezo von Ellrichshausen
            This is a large and a small building at the foot of the Andes mountains. In fact, it is an aggregate of twelve different buildings separated from each…
            Critical Cooking Show
            BUREAU, Walter el Nagar, and Filipe Felizardo
            To be contemporary might mean to re-learn how to dwell in instability, in uncertainty. Now that the notion of progress (or capitalist modernism) seems…
            Confinement
            On December 7, 1927, Antonio Gramsci reached the island of Ustica after five attempts to cross the sea from Palermo. He was the fifth political prison…
            Monument
            Sumayya Vally
            Searching for forms and histories in the architectures of diaspora, migration, and the overlooked, we may find possibilities for forms of representati…
            Critical Cooking Show
            2050+ and -orama
            Riders Not Heroes investigates the precarious conditions of food delivery riders in Milan. It makes the case for riders as essential workers, lying at…
            Confinement
            Samia Henni
            1 9:00–10:00 am Reinsurance, call 115, distribution of exceptional travel certificates, medical appointments, contact tutor for budget managemen…
            Sick Architecture
            Beatriz Colomina
            March 20, 2020 I am in New York, “the epicenter of Covid-19,” the news on TV keeps blaring, as if proud of the achievement. New York has always b…
            Monument
            Vasyl Cherepanyn and Sarmen Beglarian
            After the Maidan revolution and Russian military occupation of Ukraine in 2014, the realm of memory has been occupied by militarism and political reac…
            Sick Architecture
            In the March 1923 issue of National Geographic, a sketch of a tired-looking businessman invites the reader to the Tucson Sunshine-Climate Club. In the…
            Sick Architecture
            Iván López Munuera
            Sylvia Rivera’s Home On the bleak spring morning of April 6, 1996, the TV station WPQG interviewed Sylvia Rivera at her home in New York. The cam…
            Critical Cooking Show
            depatriarchise design, Mayar El Bakry, and Romi Lee
            In a long, narrow, modernist kitchen, Mayar El-Bakry, a Swiss-Egyptian designer, is cooking. Using anonymously designed cooking tools and objects ubiq…
            Confinement
            Léopold Lambert and Roanne Moodley
            Sara Sherif How did your work against the violence of prisons with The Funambulist begin? Léopold Lambert I think it started from an intuition tha…
            Sick Architecture
            Elizabeth A. Povinelli
            i. Not what is critique. Not what is a concept or a book. But perhaps, why this critique, this concept, this book? Why Geontologies and its obsessi…
            Monument
            We know that narratives are made of silences, not all of which are deliberate or even perceptible as such within the time of their production. We al…
            Sick Architecture
            Kara Plaxa
            My childhood playspace was in the basement of a condominium in suburban Connecticut. The room was allowed to be messy, disorganized, and filled with l…
            Sick Architecture
            Victoria Bergbauer
            Eyes set on a village in the distance, a man stands in the midst of a peaceful landscape. Two crutches support his posture. His hands rest firmly on t…
            Critical Cooking Show
            Ilana Harris-Babou
            Nature is Healing presents the reflections of a character who has fled Brooklyn for the countryside during the spring of 2020. The protagonist documen…
            Confinement
            An illustration of loneliness, togetherness, sameness, selflessness, laziness, asceticism, libertinism, domestication, inhabitation, socialization, in…
            Sick Architecture
            In 1975, tired of its reputation for being a “soft state” blemished by charges of corruption, security threats, labor unrest, and uncontrolled pov…
            Sick Architecture
            California and its northern population center, San Francisco, owes much of its character and development to disease. “Gold Fever,” as it was calle…
            Sick Architecture
            On May 28, 1914, the Institut für Schiffs- und Tropenkrankheiten (Institute for Maritime and Tropical Diseases, ISTK) in Hamburg began operations in …
            Critical Cooking Show
            Ayşenaz Toker and Merve Tuna
            An antidote to our relationship with the material world—generally framed by a rationalist apprehension of reality—object*oriented*magic creates ne…
            Confinement
            sub and Celeste Burlina
            Dear xxxx, I hope everything is well. I moved in. It is a bit strange. The space is immense. The place here is organized so the blue part is …
            Sick Architecture
            With the early twentieth century development of a series of immigration stations, quarantine facilities, and hospitals at the main ports of entry to t…
            Sick Architecture
            I As the plague smoldered in Milan in 1630, three French youths—a scholar, a painter, and an artisan—journeyed to the city from the north, in t…