e-flux Architecture collaborates with leading institutions and practitioners from around the world to produce online editorial projects.

Software as Infrastructure

The understanding of hardware as a mere offering of computational power, waiting to be used by software, is false. As networked devices become smaller, more personal, more intimate, more quotidian, more indistinguishable from daily life and the self alike, it is use value, not abstract potential, that drives the future of technological progress.

A collaboration with "Eyes of the City" at the 2019 Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (Shenzhen)​

Nick Axel and Nikolaus Hirsch
Amelyn Ng
7D Vision
Andrew Witt
Feral Autonomies
David A. Banks
Where Do You Live?
Space Popular

Housing is not just a right. Housing is right. Rights are never singular, or solitary; especially when the right is treated as property. Property is always a bundle of rights. Property gives its owner access to certain rights. Housing, then, is the bundle you hold.

A collaboration with the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Chair for Theory of Architecture

Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Georg Vrachliotis
Ingo Niermann
Automatic Privacy
Dieter Roelstraete
A Tale of Two Huts
Nathalie de Vries
Housing Futures
Renato Cymbalista (FICA) and George Kafka
Crowdfunding Downtown
Daniel Loick
The Right to Abuse
Anna Puigjaner
Towards a Diffuse House
Hilary Sample
Notes on Staircases
Oceans in Transformation

Human impact on the Earth is usually narrated as a story of terrestrial and atmospheric modification, with a focus on stratigraphic markers. Yet what is ultimately at stake in the Anthropocene is the health of our aqueous planet. Terrestrial bias will only continue at increasingly high cost to our civilizations.

A collaboration with TBA21–Academy and Ocean Archive

Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, John Palmesino, Markus Reymann, Ann-Sofi Rönnskog, and Daniela Zyman
John Palmesino and Ann-Sofi Rönnskog
When Above
Astrida Neimanis
The Sea and the Breathing
Cresantia Frances Koya Vaka’uta
The Fisherman and the Scientist
Nabil Ahmed
Infrastructural Snare
Laleh Khalili
Shipping Oil
Mark Williams and Jan Zalasiewicz
Forest Gardens Beneath the Anthropocene Seas
Jeremy B.C. Jackson
Revaluing the Oceans
Margarida Mendes and João Martins
Muddying the Waters
Emma McCormick-Goodhart
Underwater (Un)Sound
At The Border

As twentieth-century dreams of globalization continue shattering into the third decade of the new millennium, what we find in their wake are borders. Regardless of its scale, the border takes the self as its subject, defining it in relation to an other. Today, these borders are both physical and digital, geographical and political, all around and deep within us.

A collaboration with A/D/O

Nick Axel, Jan Boelen, Charlotte Dumoncel d’Argence, and Nikolaus Hirsch
Ifor Duncan and Stefanos Levidis
Weaponizing a River
Justin McGuirk
Space Unleashed
Ersela Kripa & Stephen Mueller
An Ultraviole(n)t Border
Caitlin Blanchfield and Nina Valerie Kolowratnik
Significant Impact
Daniel Fernández Pascual
Littoral Ambiguities
Theo Deutinger
Let’s Call it a Wall
Lydia Kallipoliti
Zoom In, Zoom Out
Andrea Bagnato
Staying at Home
Andrew Herscher and Ana María León
At the Border of Decolonization
Cristina Goberna Pesudo
The Unrequited Architectures of Desire
Mahmoud Keshavarz and Shahram Khosravi
The Magic of Borders
Lorenzo Pezzani
Hostile Environments
Tatiana Bilbao and Ayesha S. Ghosh
Where is the border?
Architectures of Education

From frontal teaching to rows of tables and chairs, roundtables, open-air schools, and the technology-driven dissolution of the schoolhouse, the architectures of education make ideologies tangible. Education has always been a factory of subjecthood. As such, it is a lens to reflect on what it is produced by, and speculate about what is produced.

A collaboration with Nottingham Contemporary and Kingston University

Nick Axel, Bill Balaskas, Nikolaus Hirsch, Sofia Lemos, and Carolina Rito
Santhosh S.
Politics as Pedagogy
Sol Perez-Martinez
Deschooling Architecture
Elain Harwood
System Building
Mark Jarzombek
Distributed Learning
Aoife Donnelly and Kristin Trommler
The Democratic Design of David & Mary Medd
Ramon Amaro
Threshold Value
Lesley Lokko
The Age of Wildfire
Praktik Spasial
Joaquim Moreno
Being Open
New Silk Roads

Infrastructures are spatio-temporal constructs. They not only alter the logics of relation to resources, cultures, and geographies, but also to the past, present, and future. On the one hand, infrastructures guarantee the possibility of something—water coming from the tap, a train running on time—but on the other, their effects are inherently uncertain.

A collaboration with Aformal Academy

Aformal Academy and e-flux Architecture
Timothy Mitchell
Infrastructures Work on Time
Nishat Awan and Zahra Hussain
Conflicting Material Imaginaries
Asia Bazdyrieva and Solveig Suess
The Future Forecast
Danika Cooper
Invisible Desert
Maia Adele Simon
Asymmetrical Flows
Tekla Aslanishvili and Orit Halpern
Scenes from a Reclamation

The past fifty years has seen a dramatic shift in the modes of architectural production. While the material demands placed on practice have remained relatively constant, the means by which those expectations are fulfilled, and the conditions they play out within, have transformed. What ends might architecture be able to work toward today?

A collaboration with BIO 26| Common Knowledge, the 26th Biennial of Design Ljubljana, Slovenia

Nick Axel, Thomas Geisler, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Aline Lara Rezende
Erin Besler and Ian Besler
The Whole Architecture Catalog
Alessandro Bava
Computational Tendencies
Ippolito Pestellini Laparelli
Data Architectures
Simone C. Niquille
Too Much Information

Collecting, as a process, is constitutive of collectivity. In an era marked by the exploitation and extraction of groups, gatherings, and communities, how might collecting and collectivity turn against speculative apparatuses of production, and move toward the collectives we need?

A collaboration with the Seoul Biennale of Architecture and Urbanism 2019 Thematic Exhibition

Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Beth Hughes
Ana Džokić, Marc Neelen, Jere Kuzmanić, and Predrag Milić
Enterprises of Survival
Keller Easterling
Going Wrong
Pier Vittorio Aureli, Leonard Ma, Mariapaola Michelotto, Martino Tattara, and Tuomas Toivonen
Promised Land: Housing from Commodification to Cooperation

The Global South is not a region. It is an archipelago that has survived empire, colonialism, and capitalist extraction. Each island embodies a struggle to sustain alternative ways of being in the world—a rebellion against extinction that has been going on for centuries.

A collaboration with the Sharjah Architecture Triennial, Africa Is a Country, Ajam Media Collective, ArtReview, Jadaliyya, and Mada Masr

Sharjah Architecture Triennial and e-flux Architecture
Adam Jasper
An Island Is Thinking
Pier Vittorio Aureli and Martino Tattara
Platforms: Architecture and the Use of the Ground
Sumayya Vally
Golden Plateaus
Mohamed Elshahed and Farida Makar
New Schools, New Egyptians
Are Friends Electric?

Today’s philosophical assessments of the role of technology are torn between extremes. The same is true of the worlds of art and architecture, inhabited as they are by techno-optimism as well as extreme scepticism. At a moment when we can no longer imagine a world without technology, it is vital to ask how we—the human inhabitants of this planet—imagine the world and its technologies?

A collaboration with Moderna Museet

Nick Axel, Daniel Birnbaum, and Nikolaus Hirsch
Sven-Olov Wallenstein and Koo Jeong A
Ontologies of the Virtual
Laura Kurgan, Dare Brawley, Brian House, Jia Zhang, and Wendy Hui Kyong Chun
Homophily: The Urban History of an Algorithm
Adam Greenfield
Sincerity Systems
Digital ×

All things digital are simultaneously local and global, large and small, inside and outside of any given boundary. The digital world is not crisp, but rather porous and diffuse. It brings together previously separate worlds, like those of discovery, invention, and expression. It has even become the DNA of each. The natural world and the artificial world are becoming the same. Change will happen very rapidly.

A collaboration with the Norman Foster Foundation

e-flux Architecture and Norman Foster Foundation
Nicholas Negroponte
Terms and Conditions
David Moinina Sengeh
Data Graft
Amber Case
Calm Space
Mary Lou Jepsen
Telepathic Infrastructures
Hasier Larrea
Exponential Rooms
Ben Vickers
Rules and Rhythms
Danny Hillis
10,000 Years
Theory's Curriculum

Syllabi are theory's infrastructure. While they are not the same as the essays, lectures, books, case studies, films, and other media contained within them, they can and should be seen as theoretical contributions in their own right, and subjected to the same degree of critical reflection, scrutiny, and innovation.

A collaboration with Joseph Bedford

Nick Axel, Joseph Bedford, and Nikolaus Hirsch
Marrikka Trotter, Gabriel Fuentes, and Joseph Bedford
Canonical vs. Non-Canonical
Joseph Godlewski

Global Disciplinary Knowledge
Bryan E. Norwood, Ginger Nolan, and Elisa Dainese
Architecture Unbound
Ivonne Santoyo-Orozco, Jeremy Lecomte, and Jake Matatyaou
Sites of Entanglement
Antonio Furgiuele and Matthew Allen

Mediating Theory
Liquid Utility

The maxim that “water is life” has never had more serious implications. Three in ten people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, and six in ten lack access to adequate sanitation facilities. If there is a right to water, who holds the rights to the pipes?

A collaboration with the Temple Hoyne Buell Center for the Study of American Architecture at Columbia University

Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, Reinhold Martin, Jacob R. Moore, and Jordan Steingard
Elizabeth A. Povinelli
The Urban Intensions of Geontopower
Daniel Fernández Pascual and Alon Schwabe
What is Above is What is Below
Catherine Coleman Flowers
Septic Injustice
Marcela Olivera
Working with the Commons
Jacinta Ruru
Who are your waters?
Andrea Ballestero
Living with Aquifers
Adriana Garriga-López
Agua Dulce
Andrea Muehlebach
Toward a Social Infrastructure
Becoming Digital

The modernist urgency of integration has evolved from sun, air, transportation, and advanced construction techniques to search histories, precarious labor contracts, machine learning, and burnout remedies. Today the digital is ambient, environmental. It is a dull hum that emanates from every corner of our increasingly constructed world, constituting the material, conceptual, and experiential context of any architectural project.

A collaboration with Ellie Abrons, McLain Clutter, and Adam Fure

Ellie Abrons, Nick Axel, McLain Clutter, Adam Fure, and Nikolaus Hirsch
Mark Jarzombek
Digital Post-Ontology
Ramon Amaro
As if
Guillermo Fernández-Abascal and Urtzi Grau
Learning to live together
Luke Caspar Pearson
From Superstudio to Super Mario
Eyal Weizman
Open Verification
James Bridle
Phenological Mismatch
Mollie Claypool
Discrete Automation

Architects and urban practitioners, toiling daily at the coalface of economic expansion, are complicit in the perpetuation of growth. Yet they are also in a unique position to contribute towards a move away from it. As the drivers of growth begin to reveal their inadequacies for sustaining life, we must imagine alternative societal structures that do not incentivize unsustainable resource and energy use, and do not perpetuate inequality.

A collaboration with the Oslo Architecture Triennale

Nick Axel, Matthew Dalziel, Phineas Harper, Nikolaus Hirsch, Cecilie Sachs Olsen, and Maria Smith
Angelos Varvarousis and Penny Koutrolikou
Degrowth and the City
Helena Mattsson and Catharina Gabrielsson
Pockets and Folds
Ingerid Helsing Almaas
No app for that
Ateya Khorakiwala
Architecture's Scaffolds
Hélène Frichot and Helen Runting
The Queue
Steve Webb
The Aqueduct
Matthias Schuler and Anja Thierfelder
Five Elements
Stefan Kaegi / Rimini Protokoll
Society under Construction
Karl Otto Ellefsen and Tarald Lundevall
Rural Dilemmas
Amica Dall
Very Much Reality
Sandi Hilal
The Right to Host
Daniel A. Barber
Emergency Exit
Kjetil Trædal Thorsen
Good Against Good
Mill & Jones
Exile's Letter
Tristan Boniver
Not Entropy
Structural Instability

The infrastructural breakdown that flammable cladding, rusting steel, and deteriorating concrete all point to—collapsed bridges, charred towers, and crumbling roads—is not only evidence of material degradation, but systemic abandon whose effects ripple far beyond any one site. Structural instability is not just a determinant feature of the built environment, but of contemporary life at large.

A collaboration with PennDesign

Daniel A. Barber, Eduardo Rega, and e-flux Architecture
Anooradha Iyer Siddiqi
Writing With
Susanne Schindler
Model Conflicts
Mark Wasiuta and Farzin Lotfi-Jam
Unstable Control
Dimensions of Citizenship

Citizenship has never been constituted as a singular, monumental edifice, reducible to any one institution of power or construction of identity. As a cluster of rights, responsibilities, and attachments, the lived experience of citizenship speaks to the plural, complex, and intimate relations we have with the actual and virtual spaces we inhabit.

A collaboration with the United States Pavilion of the 16th International Architecture Exhibition at La Biennale di Venezia​

Niall Atkinson, Nick Axel, Iker Gil, Nikolaus Hirsch, Ann Lui, Anton Vidokle, and Mimi Zeiger
Adrienne Brown
Architectures of Habit
Ana María León
Spaces of Co-liberation
Imre Szeman
On the Politics of Region
Dan Handel
Alma Mater
Jennifer Scappettone
Smelting Pot
Ingrid Burrington
Effortless Slippage
Nicholas de Monchaux
Mabel O. Wilson
Mine Not Yours
Enrique Ramirez
The Furtive Seasons
Urban Village

The Urban Village is hybrid. It is somewhere, something that once was, and still is, but is also, whether for want or not, becoming more. Like a chimera, it is unstable, vulnerable, and volatile, yet portends a new model for life, if only it is to survive. The Urban Village eludes capture by deductive reasoning, for no category of type can describe the molecular alchemy that thrives within.

A collaboration with the Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (UABB)

Nick Axel, Hou Hanru, Nikolaus Hirsch, Liu Xiaodu, and Meng Yan
Liu Qingyuan
Urban Village ABCs
Michiel Hulshof and Daan Roggeveen
M. Christine Boyer
The Indifferent City
Joshua Bolchover
Palimpsest Urbanism

If there is no theoretical framework, no grand narrative, no normative system of values that offers architects orientation today as there might have been fifty years ago, there is an opportunity to learn from the mistakes of the past, map out new horizons, and work towards more inclusive, global futures.

A collaboration with the Institute for the History and Theory of Architecture (gta), ETH Zürich

Nick Axel, Maarten Delbeke, Ita Heinze-Greenberg, Nikolaus Hirsch, Laurent Stalder, Philip Ursprung, and Anton Vidokle
Philip Ursprung
The End of Theory?
Joan Ockman
Richard Anderson
Possible Conjunctions
Christophe van Gerrewey
Something Completely Different
Andreas Beyer
When Does History Begin?
Peter Eisenman, Kurt W. Forster, Jacques Herzog, and Philip Ursprung
The End of Theory? A Conversation
Laurent Stalder
An Elementary Proposition
Sonja Hildebrand
Working on Common Ground
Brigitte Sölch
Architectural Problems
Vittoria di Palma
Radical Thought
Meredith TenHoor
Spyros Papapetros
Pre/post/erous Histories
Architecture and Representation

Architecture has representational power—agency in determining who or what gets represented, and how, within its realms of visibility and effect. But given that plans, models, sections, diagrams, and the like are instrumental to governmental institutions and the distribution of rights, is representation as a political category not architectural in nature?

A collaboration with Het Nieuwe Instituut and The Berlage

Nick Axel, Hugo Corbett, Salomon Frausto, Nikolaus Hirsch, Marina Otero Verzier, Tamar Shafrir, and Anton Vidokle
Peggy Deamer
Contracts of Relation
Samuel Stewart-Halevy
Future Public

The public is vexed, but cannot be ignored. The commons should be believed in, just not depended on. What lies in between the history of public space and the notion of the commons is a frontier in the struggle for political equity and social equality.

A collaboration with the New Museum's IdeasCity initiative

Nick Axel, Vere van Gool, Joseph Grima, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Anton Vidokle
Rahel Aima
Free Culture?
Anna Puigjaner
Kitchen Stories
Michael Stone-Richards
Care Comes in the Wake of Retreat

A rhetorical space for claims to be made, risks to be taken, and experiments to be rigorously conducted. A platform for the most challenging, provocative, and critical texts being written in the field of architecture today.

An initiative by e-flux Architecture

Andreas Angelidakis
Keller Easterling
Ross Exo Adams
V. Mitch McEwen
Profound Modernity
Daniel Fernández Pascual & Alon Schwabe
The Offsetted
Nicholas Korody
Mere Decorating
Andrea Bagnato
Microscopic Colonialism
Víctor Muñoz Sanz
Platform Architectures
Mario Carpo
Republics of Makers
Alessandro Bava
Habitable Art
Beatrice Galilee
Alessandro Bava
This is not an exhibition
Godofredo Enes Pereira
Towards an Environmental Architecture
Aristide Antonas and Thanos Zartaloudis
Protocols for a Life of the Ordinary
Adam Jasper
House Rules
David Adjaye
Giving Form
Paola Antonelli
Broken Nature
Ippolito Pestellini Laparelli
Pandora’s Box
Sou Fujimoto
At Scale
Juan Herreros
Global Practice
Giovanna Borasi
Other Architectures
Stefano Boeri
Marina Otero Verzier
Memory and Oblivion
Iñaqui Carnicero and Lorena del Río
Before and After
José Aragüez
Critical Imageability
Nick Axel and Nikolaus Hirsch
Editorial—Thinking Through Buildings
feminist architecture collaborative
The Women, Young Men, and Other Buildings
Dan Handel
Other Intoxications
Amelyn Ng
Julian Rose
Machines for Looking
Mimi Zeiger
Getting There
Andreas Rumpfhuber
Vienna's Red Herring
Lawrence Lek
Real Worlds
Emma McCormick-Goodhart
Paleoacoustic Accommodation
Justin Fowler
Salutogenic Energies
Emanuel Christ
A Box of Chocolate
Shahar Livne
Plastic History
Andreas Angelidakis
Letting Go
Tom Holert
School’s On/Off
Post-Internet Cities

The temples of commodity that Benjamin identified in the Parisian arcades have long-since moved out of the city and onto the internet, leaving something like a void in the capital of cities that has been quick to be filled in and fought over by start-up ventures. Solutions are the commodity of today, and we know the ones we have to be insufficient in addressing the challenges we face. What is needed is a different way of seeing; a different language for questioning.

A collaboration with MAAT – Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology

Nick Axel, Helena Barranha, Pedro Gadanho, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Anton Vidokle
Editorial—"Digital Realism"
Fabrizio Ballabio and Tommaso Franzolini
Digital Real Estate
Salvatore Iaconesi and Oriana Persico
Constrained Cities
Morten Søndergaard
On Para-logic Practices
Nashin Mahtani
Impressions of Disaster
Artificial Labor

Automated technologies have been deployed throughout the social and economic sphere since the dawn of modernity, obscuring a common emancipatory horizon by means of a double bind: by giving and taking, liberating and ensnaring, alleviating and obliging. Technological development has an inherently uncertain future, which places focus on the agents and mechanisms of its progress. Opportunity is not destiny, and history, as we know, can go any which way.

A collaboration with MAK Wien

Nick Axel, Nikolaus Hirsch, Christoph Thun-Hohenstein, Anton Vidokle, and Marlies Wirth
Bruce Wexler
About Tomorrow
Andreas Rumpfhuber
Housing Labor
Harald Gruendl
Slaves and Masters
Julia Powles
Italy’s New Rural
Simone C. Niquille

The climate is not the weather. Weather can be experienced, but to understand climate, media is necessary. As the computational capacity to manage meteorological data emerged in the middle of the twentieth century, so did the means of visualizing and disseminating these new forms of complex information.

A collaboration with Daniel A. Barber

Nick Axel, Daniel A. Barber, Nikolaus Hirsch, and Anton Vidokle
Orit Halpern
Hopeful Resilience
Emily Apter
Robin Kelsey
An Inversion
Stephanie LeMenager
Living with Fire (Hot Media)
Cymene Howe and Dominic Boyer
Wendy Hui Kyong Chun
On Patterns and Proxies
Hans Baumann and Karen Pinkus
Crystalline Basement
Jennifer Gabrys
Becoming Planetary
Nerea Calvillo
Particular Sensibilities
Hannah le Roux and Gabrielle Hecht
Bad Earth
Ian Gray
Damage Functions
Stephanie Wakefield
Anthropocene Hubris
Gökçe Günel
Energy Accumulation
Amanda Boetzkes and Jeff Diamanti
At the Moraine
Refugee Heritage

Refugee camps are established with the intention of being demolished. As a paradigmatic representation of political failure, they are meant to have no history and no future; they are meant to be forgotten. The only history that is recognized within refugee communities is one of violence and humiliation. Yet the camp is also a place rich with stories narrated through its urban fabric.

A collaboration with DAAR

Part 2

The field of design has radically expanded. As a practice, design is no longer limited to the world of material objects, but rather extends from carefully crafted individual looks and online identities, to the surrounding galaxies of personal devices, new materials, interfaces, networks, systems, infrastructures, data, chemicals, organisms, and genetic codes.

A collaboration with the 3rd Istanbul Design Biennial

Keller Easterling
No You’re Not
Brooke Holmes
Prescribing Reflexivity
Andrew Herscher
Cardboard for Humanity
Mabel O. Wilson
Carceral Architectures
Zeynep Çelik Alexander
Mass Gestaltung
Eyal Weizman
Are They Human?
Lydia Kallipoliti
Masters and Slaves
Ina Blom
On Snow Dancing
Raqs Media Collective
As if by Design
Felicity D. Scott
Lesser Worlds
Daniel Birnbaum and Sven-Olov Wallenstein
Spatial Thought
Tony Chakar
Down with the World
Rupali Gupte and Prasad Shetty
The One-Foot Shop
Rubén Gallo
Designer Sex
Giuliana Bruno
Storage Space
Ingo Niermann
Real Estate Porn
Spyros Papapetros
The Birth of Design
Alexander Tarakhovsky
Beyond the Gene
Jack Self
Beyond the Self
Francesca Hughes
Facilities for Correction
Paulo Tavares
In The Forest Ruins
Ahmet Öğüt
After the Third End
Mark Cousins
We Are Red Parakeets
Franco “Bifo” Berardi
Engineering Self
Anton Vidokle and Arseny Zhilyaev
Art without Death
Benjamin H. Bratton
On Anthropolysis
Stephan Trüby
Right-wing Spaces
Kali Stull and Etienne Turpin
Our Vectors, Ourselves
Sophia Roosth
Analysis: Synthesis
Thomas Keenan
Or are we human beings?
Nick Axel, Beatriz Colomina, Nikolaus Hirsch, Anton Vidokle, and Mark Wigley
Closing editorial
Nick Axel, Beatriz Colomina, Nikolaus Hirsch, Jihoi Lee, Anton Vidokle, and Mark Wigley
Editorial—Post-Labor, Psychopathology, Plasticity
Common Accounts
Going Fluid
Chin Jungkwon
Play and Labor
Hannah Proctor
Mournful Militancy
Erik and Ronald Rietveld
Affordances and Architecture
Jaehee Kim
Posthuman Labor
Arisa Ema
Tasks and Values
Mark Wasiuta
Ecstatic Purification
Projects Software as... Housing Oceans in Transformation At The Border Architectures of... New Silk Roads Intelligence Collectivity Conditions Are Friends Electric? Digital × Theory's Curriculum Liquid Utility Becoming Digital Overgrowth Structural Instability Dimensions of Citizenship Urban Village History/Theory Architecture and... Future Public Positions Post-Internet Cities Artificial Labor Accumulation Refugee Heritage Superhumanity
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